|Title||Dysregulation of inflammatory cytokines and inhibition of VEGFA in the human umbilical cord are associated with negative pregnancy outcomes.|
|Publication Type||Journal Article|
|Year of Publication||2019|
|Authors||Chehroudi C, Kim H, Wright TE, Collier AC|
INTRODUCTION: Cytokines and vascular endothelial growth factors (VEGF) are involved in all aspects of pregnancy: from placentation, through fetal development, parturition and neonatal well-being. Umbilical cord inflammatory cytokines and/or VEGF have not been well studied with respect to dysregulation associated with disorders of pregnancy or maternal/neonatal outcomes.
METHODS: Here we have used multiplex ELISA to screen umbilical cord lysates (comprising cord blood, endothelia and Wharton's jelly, n = 380), for levels of IFN-γ, IL1-β, IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, TNF-α and VEGFs A, C and D and associations with 46 ICD9/10 codes encompassing obstetric, maternal and neonatal variables.
RESULTS: No significant differences were observed for IFNγ, VEGFC or VEGFD with any clinical outcomes. The cytokines IL1-β, IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, and TNF-α showed varying levels of induction and suppression with primarily fetal-placental and neonatal complications. The largest number of significant differences between umbilical cytokines and clinical outcomes were observed for chorioamnionitis (IL1-β, IL-6, IL-8, TNF-α), and meconium passage during birth (IL1-β, IL-6, IL-8) where significant pro-inflammatory responses occurred and sex differences in IL-8 expression were noted. In contrast, gonococcal infection showed suppressed immune response significantly lowering IL1-β, IL-6, IL-8, IL-10 and TNF-α. For 12/46 negative pregnancy outcomes, strong suppression of VEGFA occurred.
DISCUSSION: Angiogenic and inflammatory changes in the umbilical cord could be detrimental by increasing vascular permeability in the umbilical artery or vein and/or altering vascular tone, either of which would alter blood flow affecting delivery and removal of compounds. Further elucidation of inflammatory responses in the umbilical cord may provide mechanistic understanding of adverse pregnancy outcomes.