|Title||Enhanced taxane uptake into bladder tissues following co-administration with either mitomycin C, doxorubicin or gemcitabine: association to exfoliation processes.|
|Publication Type||Journal Article|
|Year of Publication||2018|
|Authors||Pandey R, Jackson JK, Liggins R, Mugabe C, Burt HM|
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effect of three anticancer drugs (mitomycin c (MMC), doxorubicin or gemcitabine) on bladder wall morphology and the uptake of paclitaxel or docetaxel following coadministration. The primary objective of this study was to measure the uptake of MMC, doxorubicin or gemcitabine with or without exposure of the tissue to amine terminated cationic nanoparticles (CNPs) and to investigate any possible exfoliation effects of the three drugs on intact bladder tissue. The secondary objective was to investigate the uptake of taxane drugs (docetaxel, DTX) and paclitaxel, (PTX) from surfactant micelle formulations in the presence of MMC, doxorubicin or gemcitabine.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: Sections of fresh pig bladder tissue were incubated in Franz diffusion cells with the urothelial side exposed to solutions of doxorubicin, MMC and gemcitabine containing radioactive drug for 90 min. Some tissue samples were simultaneously exposed to each of the three drugs in combination with the surfactant micelle formulations of PTX (Taxol) or DTX (Taxotere). Tissue sections were then cryostat sectioned for drug quantitation by liquid scintillation counting or fixed for scanning electron microscopy and haematoxylin and eosin staining.
RESULTS: All three drugs caused exfoliation of the urothelial layer of bladder tissues. Drug uptake studies showed that all three drugs effectively penetrated the lamina propria through to the muscular layer over a 2-h incubation and these levels were unaffected by pre-treatment with CNPs. The uptake levels of the taxane drugs PTX and DTX were significantly enhanced following simultaneous treatment of bladders with MMC, doxorubicin or gemcitabine.
CONCLUSION: The exfoliation effects of MMC, doxorubicin and gemcitabine allow for good tissue penetration of these drugs with no additional effect from CNP treatment of bladders. The observed exfoliation effect of these amine-containing drugs probably arises from a cationic interaction with the mucus and urothelium cell layer in a manner similar to that previously reported for CNPs. These studies suggest that the lack of long-term clinical efficacy of these drugs may not arise from poor intravesical drug penetration but may result from a rapid diffusion of the drugs into the deeper vascularised muscular region with rapid drug clearance. The enhanced uptake of PTX or DTX following co-administration with MMC, doxorubicin or gemcitabine probably arises from the removal of the urothelial barrier by exfoliation allowing for improved taxane partitioning into superficial layers. These effects may allow for dual drug intravesical strategies offering greatly improved taxane uptake and potential additive drug effects for improved efficacy.
|Alternate Journal||BJU Int.|
|Grant List||/ / Canadian Institutes of Health Research /|