Exposure-Toxicity Relationships of Mycophenolic Acid in Adult Kidney Transplant Patients.

TitleExposure-Toxicity Relationships of Mycophenolic Acid in Adult Kidney Transplant Patients.
Publication TypeJournal Article
Year of Publication2019
AuthorsKiang TKL, Ensom MHH
JournalClin Pharmacokinet
Date Published07/2019

Mycophenolic acid is commonly prescribed in adult kidney transplant recipients for preventing graft rejection. A therapeutic target for total mycophenolic acid area under the concentration-time curve (30-60 mg h/L) has been established in adult kidney transplant recipients and widely referenced today. However, this specific target range does not adequately characterize mycophenolic acid-associated adverse effects. The primary objective of this qualitative and critical review was to characterize the exposure-toxicity relationships of mycophenolic acid in an attempt to determine whether exposure thresholds can be identified. The secondary objective was to determine the associations of clinical variables with specific adverse effects. The inclusion criteria consisted of all peer-reviewed papers in adult kidney transplant subjects (average study age > 18 years) with both exposure (area under the concentration-time curve) and toxicity data. The exclusion criteria were papers involving the pediatric population, studies lacking either area under the concentration-time curve or toxicity data, or studies with no apparent reported variations in area under the concentration-time curves. Of the 28 papers identified, inconsistent findings have been reported for the most frequently characterized adverse events of mycophenolic acid (gastrointestinal, infectious, and hematological), while promising exposure thresholds (i.e., > 40-60 mg h/L for total mycophenolic acid) have been suggested by a few studies. The roles of free mycophenolic acid exposure, mycophenolic acid metabolites, or clinical factors influencing the manifestation of the toxicities also remain to be clarified. Although it is not yet possible to define toxicity threshold(s) for the purpose of mycophenolic acid therapeutic drug monitoring, the information obtained and the limitations identified in this comprehensive literature body have provided a good foundation for future investigations.

Alternate JournalClin Pharmacokinet
PubMed ID31332670