|Title||Physical Forces Modulate Oxidative Status and Stress Defense Meditated Metabolic Adaptation of Yeast Colonies: Spaceflight and Microgravity Simulations.|
|Publication Type||Journal Article|
|Year of Publication||2018|
|Authors||Hammond TG, Allen PL, Gunter MA, Chiang J, Giaever G, Nislow C, Birdsall HH|
|Journal||Microgravity Sci Technol|
Baker's yeast () has broad genetic homology to human cells. Although typically grown as 1-2mm diameter colonies under certain conditions yeast can form very large (10 + mm in diameter) or 'giant' colonies on agar. Giant yeast colonies have been used to study diverse biomedical processes such as cell survival, aging, and the response to cancer pharmacogenomics. Such colonies evolve dynamically into complex stratified structures that respond differentially to environmental cues. Ammonia production, gravity driven ammonia convection, and shear defense responses are key differentiation signals for cell death and reactive oxygen system pathways in these colonies. The response to these signals can be modulated by experimental interventions such as agar composition, gene deletion and application of pharmaceuticals. In this study we used physical factors including colony rotation and microgravity to modify ammonia convection and shear stress as environmental cues and observed differences in the responses of both ammonia dependent and stress response dependent pathways We found that the effects of random positioning are distinct from rotation. Furthermore, both true and simulated microgravity exacerbated both cellular redox responses and apoptosis. These changes were largely shear-response dependent but each model had a unique response signature as measured by shear stress genes and the promoter set which regulates them These physical techniques permitted a graded manipulation of both convection and ammonia signaling and are primed to substantially contribute to our understanding of the mechanisms of drug action, cell aging, and colony differentiation.
|Alternate Journal||Microgravity Sci Technol|
|PubMed Central ID||PMC6560652|